How to Get 30 Minutes of Exercise Each Day

Physical inactivity is the second highest lifestyle related cause of disease and illness in Australia.

Running

As part of our Healthy Lifestyle Challenge, participants must consistently do 30 minutes of moderate intensity, ‘huffy puffy’ exercise each day.

What is ‘huffy puffy’ exercise?

‘Huffy puffy’ exercise is any movement that gets your heart rate up and makes you sweat. You should be out of breath and unable to hold a conversation in full sentences.

The National Physical Activity Guidelines recommend accumulating 2.5 – 5 hours of moderate intensity or 1.25-2.5 hours of vigorous intensity exercise each week. In an ideal world, you’re aiming for a combination of both.

Benefits of exercise

Getting 30 minutes of ‘huffy puffy’ exercise in each day can be easier than you expect. Besides, the benefits are totally worth it! Getting vigorous exercise in each day will help:

  • Optimise your mood, memory and brain function

  • Increase your blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply to your body

  • Reduce your risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis

  • Assist with managing your weight

Here are 3 fun and easy ways to get puffed in 30 minutes:

1. Circuit Training

Circuit training is one of the most efficient ways to enhance cardiovascular fitness and muscle endurance. It’s easy to create a short, sharp session at home using different exercises to target different muscle groups and body parts. Try incorporating upper body exercises like pushups, tricep dips and chin ups with lower body exercises like squats, lunges, calf raises and stair climbs. Throw in some crunches, planks and leg raises to finish off and work your core. With minimal rest cycles you can easily make this a high intensity session and tick off your 30 minutes easily.

2. Interval Training 

Steady state exercise like going for a long run, ride or row at a slower speed are great, aerobic, huffy puffy exercises, but if you want to boost the overall intensity, try adding interval training. This style of training mixes high and low intensity (or active rest) exercise for great metabolic results.

Instead of going for a slow run, try sprinting for 30 seconds at maximum effort and then scale back the intensity to an easy jog for 1-2 minutes of active recovery. Repeat 8-10 times. Varying exercise intensity can help your body adapt to exercising for longer and at higher intensity levels.

3. Skipping

Skipping rope is a fun, total body way to break a sweat. Using a skipping rope strengthens both your upper and lower body, gets your heart rate pumping and builds coordination and balance. If that’s not enough to convince you – a skipping rope costs less than $5 and is light and transportable so you can take it with you anywhere.

All 3 of the above exercises are great ways to incorporate ‘huffy puffy’ exercise into your favourite routine or use them on their own as a serious heart pumping activity. Don’t be afraid to mix up your cardiovascular exercise – any activity that helps you get your sweat on is perfect! 

Reflections of a 2 x Iron(wo)man

I feel Ironman is achievable for everyone, don’t be intimidated by the distance, embrace the challenge. You won’t regret it
— Bec Baird

 I never thought I’d do an Ironman. Triathlon was just another way to challenge myself – except my challenges just kept getting bigger and bigger! I believe that every race is a learning experience and I try to find new ways to improve when I reflect post-race. Now that I have 2 Ironman’s (IM) under my belt, here are the Top Three things I learnt from and changed between Ironman 1 in Cairns 2017 and Ironman 2 for Ironman Australia in Port Macquarie 2018. 

  1. Fuel Your Body - In the lead up to IM Cairns I was not consuming enough food during training to fuel my every day needs, cue falling asleep at 2pm during work and lots of hangry moments. IM Australia was much more organised. I followed a periodised nutrition plan from Dietitian Approved to ensure there was no midday drowsiness, even on my bigger training days, only the occasional hangry moment (who doesn’t have those!?) and plenty of energy to smash training.  
  2. Practice Makes Perfect – I did a lot of my training with friends for IM Cairns which made the 5+ hour rides a lot less lonely. But come race day, I got very lonely and fatigued at the back end of the bike - at one stage I wondered if the race was still going! For IM Australia I made a point of trying to do a lot of solo riding in training where possible and I believe this gave me a much more positive mindset come race day. 
  3. Knowledge is Power – Nerves were not an issue with either IM but lack of experience was. How was my body going to hold up during my 12+ hours of racing? My “weakness” is my run leg and after blowing up fairly early on the run in IM Cairns I knew I had to have a better plan for IM Australia. Taryn made some big changes in my bike nutrition to ensure I was getting the right amount of fuel without any gut issues. Combined with a well-controlled run leg, this made for a much happier race and faster, consistent run splits! 

Whilst I was reflecting on the differences, it also gave me time to remember the things that didn’t change. One thing that was a constant between both races was the love and support I received from my friends and family. It was unwavering, and I am truly grateful (you all know who you are). Triathlon is an individual sport, but it takes a team to get you there. Thank you to everyone on my team. I feel Ironman is achievable for everyone, don’t be intimidated by the distance, embrace the challenge - make a plan, build your support team (coach, dietitian, massage, training buddies) and go for it! You won’t regret it. 

Thanks to DA Crew member Bec Baird for sharing her reflections with us!

Intermittent Fasting: Breaking down the evidence

Intermittent Fasting; the latest in diet trends. Claiming health benefits from weight loss to prevention of chronic disease. Is it really the answer to the world’s health problems? We take a look at the evidence...

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What is intermittent fasting?

Intermittent fasting encompasses several different dietary behaviours, all of which focus on controlling the period in which food is consumed. These behaviours dictate a fasting and feeding schedule of various lengths. However, there isn't a restriction placed on the TYPES of foods consumed during feeding times.

Different types of intermittent fasting:

The three most popular methods that are circulating the health and fitness industry are:

  • Time-Restricted Feeding 
    Daily fasting for a minimum of 12 hours (the most common fast is 16 hours, with 8 hours during the day to eat, for example only eating between 11am and 7pm).

  • Alternate Day Fasting 
    Involves cycling between one day of “fasting” and one day of consuming your regular diet. On the “fasting” day, you consume less than ~25% of your daily energy requirements. For an average adult this equates to  ~2175kJ – or roughly equivalent to your lunchtime chicken sandwich.

  • The 5 and 2 Method 
    This involves energy restriction to less than 25% of requirements for two non-consecutive days per week. While 5 days you eat as per usual.

The health benefits

Intermittent fasting has been shown to cause significant weight loss in short-term studies, varying from 4-8% loss of body weight within 6-12 weeks (3-5, 7). However, when this was compared to a constant control of energy intake there appears to be no difference in weight loss between the groups (3-5). Findings did point to less loss of fat-free mass (our muscle) during intermittent fasting, demonstrating that it may be a more efficient method to prevent loss of lean muscle mass during weight loss periods (4-5).

Intermittent fasting has been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, however with the current research available it is difficult to observe if benefits are unique to fasting, or if they simply occur as a result of weight loss. These benefits include improvements in cholesterol (lowered LDL and total cholesterol), triglycerides, blood pressure, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers (3-4). Fat loss also produces changes in circulating levels or certain adipokine’s (proteins released by fat cells) which has a protective effect on the progression of cardiovascular disease and cancer (3-4). Fasting has also shown decreases in fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance, good news for the prevention and management of Type 2 Diabetes (3-4). Despite these preliminary benefits, current research remains largely inconclusive, highlighting a need for further long-term human studies.

Is it an option for athletes?

When considering changing up your dietary routine, one of the most important questions to ask is, “is it sustainable in the long term for your lifestyle?”. Whether a recreational athlete or a serious competitor, having enough fuel in the tank is essential to get through long, hard training sessions. Incorporating extended periods of fasting and depleting fuel stores, while continuing to attempt a high training load is counterproductive.

We know that lower intensity exercise draws predominantly on fat as a fuel source. While higher intensities have an increased reliance on carbohydrate as a fuel. With insufficient fuel at high intensities, you slow down to allow the body to utilise more fat as a fuel. In both professional and recreational athletes, VO2 max decreased by up to 12% during an intermittent fasting routine (2).  However, regardless of type or intensity of exercise, all athletes reported feeling higher levels of fatigue (1-2).

So if your daily training routine is more aerobic, slow and steady style, then fasting may not impact too much on performance; although you might not feel quite as light on your feet! Planning rest days or shorter, easier, recovery type sessions on fasting days could be the way around this. If you’re more interested in short, sharp, high-intensity sessions, you would struggle to get the best performance out of your session in a prolonged fasted state.

Recovery is also significantly impacted if you’re not able to refuel after a session. The ingestion of protein and carbohydrate post-exercise increases muscle synthesis and replenishes glycogen stores. If you’re unable to adequately refuel post-exercise or even during the following 24 hours, this can result in muscle breakdown and inadequate energy stores to complete training on subsequent days (8). In summary, it would be difficult to incorporate intermittent fasting with a heavy training load, however, there are certain adjustments you could make to try and minimise negative effects:

  1. Choose time-restricted feeding over other fasting patterns, this allows for adequate fuel intake EVERY day and will have the smallest negative impact on recovery.
  2. If choosing a fasting technique where intake on certain days is less than 25% of requirements, ensure protein intake is adequate to prevent muscle breakdown after training. Intake of 20-30g of protein following a session and regularly distributed throughout the day is a good place to start! (8) 
  3. Plan training sessions OUTSIDE of fasting times if possible to minimise the effect on performance.
  4. Stay HYDRATED to prevent further fatigue on your body. Sometimes when we’re not eating we also forget to drink!

Playing devil's advocate

In our opinion, any form of dietary restriction should come with a big fat warning sign! These behaviours can result in increased hunger levels and overeating outside of fasting times. We commonly see people on the 2 and 5 diet binge eat on their 5 days of “normal” eating, completely negating any effect of the 2 days of fasting! Our body is great at playing catch up. Other negative effects to highlight include irritability and an inability to focus, so proceed with caution as everyone is different and fasting may not suit you (or your family!). Extra effort should also be placed on consuming a balanced diet in the hours of feeding to ensure you are still getting everything you need.

The final word

Although intermittent fasting is praised at times, there is still inadequate research to promote it globally as a superior method for weight loss or prevention of chronic disease. Yes, there are several proposed benefits, however, these could simply be seen as a result of weight loss itself. Fasting also requires significant effort to ensure dietary intake is adequately met and for athletes, alterations to your training schedule so performance is minimally affected. The best diet is the one you can stick to! If fasting is something you want to consider - see an Accredited Dietitian who can ensure you’re getting everything you need across the week, no matter what fasting program you’re on.

 

References

(1) Chaouachi, J., Coutts, P., Chamari, P., Wong, P., Chaouachi, P., Chtara, P., Roky, P., et al. (2009). Effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance and Perception of Fatigue in Male Elite Judo Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2702–2709. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bc17fc

(2) Chaouachi, A., Leiper, J., Chtourou, H., Aziz, A., & Chamari, K. (2012). The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: Recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, S53. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1026565523/

(3) Patterson, R., & Sears, D. (n.d.). Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual Review of Nutrition, 37, 371–393. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634

(4) Anton, S., Moehl, K., Donahoo, W., Marosi, K., Lee, S., Mainous, A., Leeuwenburgh, C., et al. (2018, February). Flipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying the Health Benefits of Fasting. Obesity. doi:10.1002/oby.22065

 (5) Harvie, M., & Howell, A. (2017). Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence. Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 4. doi:10.3390/bs7010004

(6) Maughan, R., Fallah, J., & Coyle, E. (2010). The effects of fasting on metabolism and performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(7), 490. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.072181

(7) Varady, K. (2011). Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss? Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 12(7), e593. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00873.x

(8) Burke, L. (2010). Fasting and recovery from exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 44,502-508. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.071472

Sleep and Athletic Performance

Sleep is essential for general health and wellbeing. 

The more we learn, the more we realise that increased sleep duration and quality is associated with better performance in sport and life. The National Sleep Foundation recommends adults get between 7-9 hours of sleep each day for optimal health (1). But it's not clear exactly how much sleep athletes need. It's been suggested athletes require more - closer to 9-10 hours (2). But duration is not the only factor - sleep quality is also important. Getting the right amount of good quality sleep has some incredible benefits for athletic performance. Let's take a deeper look... 

Recovery

Image source: Getty images

Image source: Getty images

For an athlete, sleep is the ultimate form of recovery. It's like a big sponge that soaks up fatigue overnight. This sponge assists with the recovery process so we can adapt from and absorb hard training. The bigger the sponge (sleep duration), the more water (fatigue) it can soak up. 

It's in the deep sleep phases (Stage 3 and 4 NREM) during the first half of the night that we do most of our physical recovery and repair.

The light sleep stages which make up approximately 50% of a total nights sleep (Stage 1 and 2) are also key to both physical and neural recharge overnight. If we don't spend enough time in these phases, we wake up feeling foggy.

Sleep is a WEAPON
— Jason Bourne

Reaction time, coordination and accuracy

It's in Stage 5 (REM) sleep where our brains recovery, learning and development occurs. We create new nerve pathways to consolidate and repair memories, skills and process information. Side note - it's also where we release testosterone (in both men and women). Research suggests that sleep deprivation delays the signals which travel along these pathways, decreasing our coordination and accuracy (2). So much so that inadequate sleep has been likened to being drunk! Williamson and Feyer (2000) demonstrated the longer the duration without sleep (up to 23 hours), performance in cognitive tasks, motor skills, speed and accuracy decreased to levels equivalent to a blood alcohol content of 0.1%. Twice the legal driving limit in Australia!

The duration of REM sleep increases as the night progresses, with the longest duration occurring just before waking. So get to bed early to ensure you get the beneficial effects on mental performance more REM sleep brings.

Injury & illness

Decreased sleep has been associated with an increased risk of injury and illness. Inadequate sleep is immunosuppressive, increasing our risk of upper respiratory tract infections. In a study of 164 adults administered nasal drops containing rhinovirus, those who slept for less than 5hrs were 4.5 times more likely to develop an illness than those that slept for greater than 7hrs (4).

Being sick or injured reduces training availability and is obviously something we want to avoid. The underlying mechanism for increased injury with sleep loss is unclear but is likely due to cognitive impairment and decreased reaction time, along with higher levels of fatigue. All of which can increase an athletes risk of injury.

Mental stamina and mood

Striving to be fitter, faster and stronger doesn’t just require physical effort, it also requires mental stamina. Feeling mentally drained will impact your mood and we all know that missing out on a good nights rest can alter how we think and feel. People who sleep for less than five hours are often sadder, angrier and more stressed (2) which is linked with low motivation and decreased sports performance (5).

Endurance performance

Not a lot is known about sleep deprivation and its effect on short, sharp, anaerobic power type exercise, but a number of studies have shown decreased endurance performance (6, 7, 8, 9).  Sleep loss clearly resulted in increasing 3km time trial duration in cyclists (7), decreased time to exhaustion in volleyball players (6) and decreased treadmill run distance covered in a 30 minutes self-paced test (9). This appears to be due to an increase in our perception of effort (how hard you feel you're working) (8). It may also be due to an alteration in substrate availability as pre-exercise muscle glycogen (our carbohydrate fuel tank) has been found to be decreased after sleep deprivation (10). 

Improve sleep efficiency

Multiple studies show the significant implications sleep deprivation has on performance. From impaired accuracy, coordination and reaction time, fatigue, inadequate recovery, to increased risk of injury and illness. So what can we do to improve our sleep efficiency - both duration and quality?

  • Get to bed earlier, aiming to get 7-9 hours of sleep every night.
  • Stop using your phone in bed. The blue light it emits affects our normal sleep hormone production (melatonin)
  • Ensure all of your devises are set up with night mode so they switch to a more warm, orange hue after sunset.
  • Make your sleep environment comfortable, dark, cool and quiet
  • Establish a regular sleep routine
  • Eat foods that assist with promoting sleep - more on this next time!

Next up - we take a look at food to boost sleep performance. Stay tuned!

 

References

 1. Hirshkowitz et al., (2015). National Sleep Foundation's updated sleep duration recommendations: final report. Sleep Health: The Journal of the National Sleep Foundation. 1(4), 233-243

2. Bird, S, P. (2013). Sleep, recovery, and athletic performance: a brief review and recommendations. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. 35:43-47.

3. Williamson, A., Feyer, A. (2001). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57: 649-655.

4. Prather, A., Janicki-Deverts, D., Hall, M. and Cohen, S. (2015). Behaviuorally assessed sleep and susceptibility to the common cold. Sleep. 38: 1353-1359.

5. Totterdell, P., Reynolds, S., Parkinson, B., & Briner, R. (1994). Associations of Sleep with Everyday Mood, Minor Symptoms and Social Interaction Experience. Sleep, 17(5), 466-475.

6. Azboy, O, Kaygisiz Z. (2009). Effects of sleep deprivation on cardiorespiratory functions of the runners and volleyball players during rest and exercise. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 96, 29-36.

7. Chase et al. (2017). One night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise impairs 3-km cycling time-trial performance in the morning. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism. 1-7

8. Fullagar, H, H, Skorski S, Duffield R, et al. (2015). Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 45, 161-86.

9. Oliver, S, Costa, R, Laing, S, et al. (2009). One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 107, 155-61.

10. Skein, M, Duffield, R, Edge, J., et al. (2011). Intermittent-sprint performance and muscle glycogen after 30 h of sleep deprivation. Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise; 43: 1301-11.

11. Watson, A. (2017). Sleep and Athletic Performance. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 16(6), 413-418.

Exercise to manage stress and mood

It is well known that exercise increases your fitness and improves your overall health and well-being. Exercise is also an effective way to manage your mood and stress levels.

Virtually any form of exercise from weight lifting to running or even yoga, has powerful ‘mood-boosting’ effects. Exercise can help:

·       Decrease stress and anxiety levels

·       Ward off feelings of depression

·       Boost confidence and self-esteem

·       Increase productivity

·       Improve sleep

So how does exercise work it’s magic?

Endorphins. Endorphins are feel-good neurotransmitters or chemicals. When you perform any type of physical activity your body responds by releasing these neurotransmitters. The endorphins interact with your brain’s opiate receptors and trigger feelings of euphoria and general well-being. They also suppress your ability to feel pain.

Although a demanding schedule sounds like the perfect reason to for-go exercising, setting aside some time to move every day helps turn your daily physical activity into a healthy habit. The current recommendations for healthy adults is 150 to 300 minutes of moderate or 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous activity per week. Try breaking exercise up into smaller chunks, mixing up the intensity of your physical activity and alternating between morning, lunch time and evening activities to fit around your busy days. Whatever you do, don’t think of exercise as another chore – it is actually the key to de-stressing after a hectic day! 

Runners Gut. What is it? How can you prevent it?

Are you the type of runner that knows exactly where every public toilet is along your route?

Don’t worry - you're not alone! 30-50% of athletes regularly suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems while exercising (1).

Far too common among endurance athletes, GI symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, wind, vomiting, diarrhoea and urgency. The frequency, intensity and severity of these symptoms seems to increase as the event distance increases.

So why exactly does it happen?

It’s multifaceted and highly individual but reasons include mechanical, physiological, and nutritional factors (2). We also know that the symptoms are exacerbated by dehydration and hot weather conditions. If you are female, younger and run at high intensity, you may be at higher risk of GI symptoms too (1) (damnit).

Running causes an increase in intra-abdominal pressure which, when combined with our organs bouncing up and down can cause GI symptoms (2). When we exercise, blood flow is re-directed away from our gastrointestinal tract to the exercising muscles, heart, lungs, brain and skin. Blood flow to our intestines can be reduced by as much as 80% !! This obviously compromises gut function and can exacerbate symptoms.

Hydration plays an important role. Dehydrated athletes have reported increased rates of nausea, abdominal cramps and delayed gastric emptying (food leaving your stomach) and associated nausea. Combine decreased blood flow to the gut with dehydration and it can cause increased permeability of the gut (2). In plain English – things are moving across the gut walls in a way they shouldn’t be, causing GI upset.

From a nutritional point of view; fat, fibre, protein and high carbohydrate concentrations (osmolarity) can all be associated with increased risk of GI symptoms. Fat, fibre and protein all slow down digestion – not ideal when you’re running at pace. Large amounts of carbohydrate may not be fully absorbed, leaving residual carbohydrate in the stomach causing GI symptoms during exercise such as bloating, fullness, flatulence and nausea (2).

What can you do to prevent runners gut? Here are our tips:

1.     Train your gut

The gut is extremely adaptable. Research (in humans) shows that you can train your gut in as little as ~30 days to increase absorption capacity (2). Train your gut, just as you would your muscles. Start small and slowly increase the quantities of food and/or fluids you consume while running over a few weeks/months to build your tolerance. Try different types of foods, liquids and gels in training to figure out what works best for you. The golden rule of sports nutrition – NEVER try anything new on race day.

Keep in mind that GI symptoms are usually increased with distance, heat and humidity (3, 4), so you will likely need different strategies depending on the season and the distance you are running.

2.     Play with different carbohydrate sources

We know our gut absorption rate of glucose alone maxes out at approx. 1g/min, or 60g/hour. For the longer endurance events >2hours (i.e. half and full marathons, 50km, 100km and ultra’s), higher carbohydrate intake is recommended, although it's important to find your individual ceiling. You can increase your carbohydrate absorption by utilising different carbohydrates e.g. fructose. This is because it’s absorbed across the gut wall via a different pathway to glucose and can occur simultaneously. Stick to smaller doses, then build you tolerance up over several weeks/months.

3.     Avoid high fibre foods before competition

In the day or two leading into hard training or competition when you bump up your carbohydrate intake, maintain your typical fibre intake to minimise the amount of undigested fibre left in your gastrointestinal tract. Choose white, more refined breads and cereals instead of wholemeal or wholegrain. Keep high fibre veggies and fruits to a minimum. Some lower fibre options include tomato, zucchini, olives, grapes and grapefruit at <1g fibre/serve.

Note: This is not a long-term approach. It should only be followed for 1-2 days ahead of competition. Generally, you should be consuming a high fibre diet to regulate bowel movements and keep you regular.

4.     Go easy on the coffee (sorry)

If you have a sensitive gut, avoid drinking coffee on an empty stomach or right before hard runs. I know, I know…coffee is the best elixir and has performance enhancing effects - but coffee is a strong gut irritant and could be exacerbating your problem. Save your brew for post-exercise. There are plenty of other ways to get caffeine in – don’t stress.

5.     Start exercise hydrated and stay hydrated!

It goes without saying right? Yet the number of athletes we see turn up to sweat testing already dehydrated is insane. Without the use of regular USG’s (urine specific gravity), monitoring the colour of your urine can give you a general idea on your hydration status. You’re aiming for pale, straw coloured urine on a day to day basis as a measure of good hydration. Crystal clear and you’re overdoing it. Really dark and you probably need to drink more…

During exercise you typically need to drink to replace sweat losses enough so you don’t put yourself into the red of dehydration where performance is affected. Do some sweat testing to figure out your sweat rate in different environmental conditions, then work to replace 50-80% of the losses depending on the conditions, duration and intensity. Again, something to practice. If your sweat rate is >3L/hour – you will struggle to drink and absorb this volume of fluid without some serious gut training!

Another good tip is to have a good hit of water with your pre-exercise meal (300-450ml) as this will help prime the stomach to empty well and absorb any nutrition you’re using during exercise. Something to practice. Start with a smaller volume (100-200ml) then build up to 350-450ml 2 hours before exercise.

An Accredited Sports Dietitian can help you with an individualised hydration plan for training and racing.

6.     Your day to day diet impacts your ability to absorb nutrients

Studies have shown increased gastric emptying of carbohydrate by increasing daily dietary carbohydrate (8). Interestingly, increased daily fat intake results in faster gastric emptying of fat, but not carbohydrate. How cool is that?

So, if you generally have a high carbohydrate diet, this increases your ability to absorb carbohydrate across the intestinal wall which in turn, allows greater absorption and then oxidation of carbohydrate during exercise (6). This lowers the chance of GI distress.

For those people that follow a low carbohydrate, high fat diet generally, your intestines respond by decreasing intestinal absorption of carbohydrate and increasing fat absorption. If you then try and ramp up your carbohydrate intake just before competition, chances are you won’t absorb this as well and will have a higher chance of running into GI issues on race day (pun intended). It is also unlikely you will be able to increase your carbohydrate intake beyond 60g/hr if this isn’t something you’ve practiced in training.

Ideal scenario – periodise your intake across the week so you have some days of high carbohydrate availability and some days with low carbohydrate availability depending on your goals and events.

Speak to an Accredited Sports Dietitian about the best strategy for you. Research shows that runners who applied a freely chosen nutritional strategy consumed less carbohydrates during the race and their finish time was longer (5).

Want better results and easy to follow strategies that are tailored to your individual needs? Get professional advice.

 

References

  1. de Oliviera EP, Burini RC. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011; 8: p12
  2. de Oliviera EP, Burini RC. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress. Nutrients. 2014; 6: p4191-4199.
  3. Pfeiffer B et al. Nutritional Intake and Gastrointestinal Problems during Competitive Endurance Events. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012; 44(2): p344-351.
  4. Sessions J et al. Carbohydrate gel ingestion during running in the heat on markers of gastrointestinal distress. European Journal of Sport Science. 2016; 16(8): p1064-1072.

  5. Hansen EA et al. Improved Marathon Performance by In-Race Nutritional Strategy Intervention. International Journal Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2014; 24: p645-655.

  6. Cox GR, Clark SA, Amanda J. Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, Jeacocke N, Snow RJ, Yeo WK, Burke LM. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010 109(1); p126-134 DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009

  7. Lambert GP, Lang J, Bull A, et al. Fluid tolerance while running: effect of repeated trials. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 29: p878–82.

  8. Cunningham KM, Horowitz M, Read NW. The effect of short-term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying in humans. British Journal of Nutrition. 1991; 65: (15–9).

  9. de Oliveira, E. P., Burini, R. C., Jeukendrup, A. 2014. Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Medicine 44 Suppl 1: S79-85.

Dietitian Approved Crew - Pat Nispel

Introducing Pat! 

We have the absolute pleasure of running regularly with Pat right here in Brisbane.

He makes running look just so easy! We could only dream of running even half as fast or as efficiently as this Swiss machine! 

Quite the competitor, Pat has a long list of achievements in the running world. Just quietly, he also won our Healthy Lifestyle Challenge in 2016 which he adds to his list of accolades.

Read on for his story...

Patrick Nispel Marathon runner
2017 GCAM.jpeg

Name: Patrick Nispel

Current location: Brisbane, QLD

Profession: Accredited Running Coach, used to work as an Architect/Urban Designer

Sport of Choice: Running in any form from track to road and the occasional multisport event.

How many years have you been training and competing in your sport? 25 years of competitive running

What got you into it in the first place?

I grew up in a small village in Switzerland and started with the local gymnastic club at age 5. My sister got me into running at age 12 but we played many other sports as well. It was not until age 17 I started to take athletics more seriously and qualifed for national teams regularly. I moved to Brisbane in 2007 and transitioned to road running with a focus on half and full marathons in 2011.

What’s your favourite training session?

When I'm fit, I like to push myself in some track intervals e.g. 10 x 1km reps or a Marathon specific long run of 30 to 38km at close to race pace.

Main Competition or Events for 2017:

21st at Gold Coast Airport Marathon in 2:28:25 (comeback race after stress fracture in 2017),

Australian Championships half-marathon Sunshine Coast (August), Melbourne half-marathon (October), Overseas Marathon end of 2017 TBC

Looking ahead to 2018 and beyond, what are your bigger goals for your sporting career:

Improve on my marathon PB. Run some of the World Marathon Majors including Tokyo, New York, Chicago, Boston is on my bucket list too. I would also like to take my running group to some big overseas marathon events.

What’s your biggest achievement in your sport so far:

I've had a long running career in track, cross country, mountain, trail and road running. Some results and highlights can be found on my website. My top 3 experiences would probably be:

·      Winning Zatopek 3000m Steeplechase in Melbourne 2008 (8:59 PB)

·      3rd place at Senshu International City Marathon Osaka JAP 2012

·      9th at International Zurich Marathon SUI 2013 (2:22:55 PB)

Do you have a saying or motto you live your life by?

Train smarter, not harder!

What are one or two things you do in your day to day training life that you feel are keys to your success?

Eating a well balanced diet, body maintenance work, getting quality sleep (not always possible with a 17 month old son ;-)

Three things you can’t live without?

My family, coffee, running

Favourite food:

I like and eat almost anything and strive for a balanced diet. Seafood dishes as well as some hearty Swiss potato/veggie/cheese dishes are my favourite.

Favourite post-training meal or snack?

After a big training session; a typical breakfast for me would be: 3 weet-bix, a cup of muesli, rice milk, yoghurt, chia seeds, lots of nuts and berries/ fruits, with cinnamon on top. Green juice or orange juice and large coffee.

What’s the number 1 (or 2) thing you’ve learnt about sports nutrition for performance in your sport?

Nutrient timing as well as optimising my carbo-loading, race day nutrition and hydration plan.


Pat is the owner and head coach at P.A.T.42.2 RUNNING that offers personal running coaching in Brisbane and online. If you want further info, check out his website at:

http://pat422running.com.au/

Photo cred: David Magahy
Dietitian Approved Crew in France
GCAM 2017
City2South Winner 2016.jpeg

Dietitian Approved Crew - Dave

Introducing Dave! 

Dave aka Bangar can do it all. From indoor rowing to rugby, surf swimming, pool swimming and running, what can't you do well Dave? Just quietly he holds the title for the No. 1 ranked Indoor Rower for the half marathon IN THE WORLD!

Dave's next focus is on smashing his Gold Coast 10km run time with the goal to go sub 39 minutes this weekend. Good luck Dave!

Burleigh Swim Run 2017

Burleigh Swim Run 2017

Name: David 

Current location: Palm Beach, QLD      

Profession: Turf Contractor

Sport of Choice: Running/Swimming

How many years have you been training and competing in your sport? 26 years

What got you into it in the first place? Looking for a new sport

What’s your favourite training session? 4-10 1km reps (running)

Main Competition or Event for 2017: Gold Coast 10km run + Burleigh Swim Run (Australia Day 2017)

Looking ahead to 2018 and beyond, what are your bigger goals for your sporting career:
2018 World Indoor rowing champs;
Australia Day Challenge Burleigh Swim Run;
Burleigh to Surfers 10km swim

What’s your biggest achievement in your sport so far:
10 games with the QLD Reds 1988-1990
2015 No. 1 ranked indoor rower in the world for half marathon 

Do you have a saying or motto you live your life by?

-       Be kind to others

-       Strive for excellence and quality 

What are one or two things you do in your day to day training life that you feel are keys to your success?

-       I am always thinking about recovery

Three things you can’t live without?

-       My 2 sons + my ute

Favourite food:

Wild caught fish (Mackerel, Swordfish), mashed potato, cereal, Dietitian Approved Thai Red Curry

Favourite post-training meal or snack?

Fresh fruit scone hot out of the oven from the Vietnamese bakery at Highgate Hill.

What’s the number 1 thing you’ve learnt about sports nutrition for performance in your sport?

-       Keep the protein trickling in all through the day

-       Periodise your eating

Photo cred: David Magahy

Photo cred: David Magahy

Dietitian Approved Crew - Bec

Introducing Bec! 

An all round LEGEND, Bec is one of our longest standing clients! She even has an original meal plan with our old logo on it - sorry about that Bec :) From humble beginnings as a triathlete 3 years ago, she's gearing up to race Cairns IRON(Wo)MAN this weekend. Good luck Bec! You're going to absolutely smash it!

Photo cred: Delly Carr

Photo cred: Delly Carr

Name: Rebecca aka Bec

Current location: Mackay, QLD      

Profession: Podiatrist

Sport of Choice: Triathlon, but my first love was and still is netball – I’ve retired from playing now to coach

How many years have you been training and competing in your sport? On and off since 2010, started taking triathlon more seriously in 2015

What got you into it in the first place? I love a challenge and a few people I went to university with competed at a pretty decent level so they were a bit of inspiration for me

What’s your favourite training session? Long rides or a brick session

Main Competition or Event for 2017: Ironman Cairns

Looking ahead to 2018 and beyond, what are your bigger goals for your sporting career: Ultimately (in a few years) I would love to be able to balance having a family and still train and race in triathlons. I’m enjoying long course racing at the moment so maybe a few more 70.3’s and IM’s …. and I wouldn’t mind qualifying for Kona one day - that would be pretty awesome!

What’s your biggest achievement in your sport so far: Mooloolaba Olympic Distance (OD) 2017 – did the race with no taper as part of my training for Ironman Cairns. Managed to get an overall OD PB by about 5mins and beat my 2015 MooTri time by about 25mins.

Do you have a saying or motto you live your life by?

-       A life lived in fear is a life half lived

-       Control the controllables

What are one or two things you do in your day to day training life that you feel are keys to your success?

-       Always have my bag packed and food prepped the night before

-       Trusting the process

-       Listening to my body

Three things you can’t live without?

-       Family

-       Coffee

-       Friends

Favourite food:

-       Post race = hot chips

-       Any other time = rump steak (med rare), mushroom sauce with chips and salad

Favourite post-training meal or snack?

This is normally breakfast so I love my overnight oats or Dietitian Approved pancakes.

What’s the number 1 thing you’ve learnt about sports nutrition for performance in your sport?

-       The timing of what you eat!

Dietitian Approved Crew Bec Baird
Dietitian Approved Crew_Bec running

Turmeric – the next big sports nutrition supplement?

As the Turmeric latte surges to the front of the trend list, what is it about this spice that’s causing all the hype? We take a look at what it is, the potential benefits and how to include it in your diet.

Why the hype?

Turmeric is a golden yellow spice that has been used for centuries in Indian cooking. Turmeric contains the bioactive compound Curcumin, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It’s claimed to have a positive effect on heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, arthritis, depression, anxiety, Alzheimer’s disease, colorectal cancer and many other conditions. Be mindful though that research for these benefits has been done in vitro (in a petri dish) or in animal models (mostly rats) which is difficult to extrapolate to humans. The research in humans is limited and more trials are needed.

How much Turmeric and Curcumin may benefit?

It’s not as simple as adding a little turmeric to your latte or smoothie. Curcumin makes up <5% of turmeric. In its naturally occurring state, curcumin has very low bioavailability in humans (i.e. it’s poorly absorbed). Partly due to its low intestinal absorption and partly due to its rapid metabolism. Based on research to date, oral supplementation in the range of 80-500mg is likely to be required, however studies have shown doses as high as 8000mg being insufficient to increase levels of curcumin in the blood (1, 2, 3). The jury is still out on exactly how much curcumin and in what form is required to reap the benefits.

Increasing Curcumin bioavailability

Laboratory testing is currently underway to explore better ways to take curcumin so that it’s more bioavailable, absorbed better and delivered directly to the required tissue. Taken orally, it seems to stay in our digestive system and pass through without being absorbed into the blood stream.

It is possible to enhance curcumin absorption by combining it with piperine, a black pepper extract. One study found that 20mg of piperine paired with 2000mg of curcumin increased curcumin bioavailability by 2000% (4).

Curcumin is also fat soluble so it’s possible to increase absorption by consuming with fat soluble components e.g. oils or traditionally gum ghatti. There is also current research occurring to produce water soluble curcumin supplements.

Curcumin – the next big sports nutrition supplement

In the sports nutrition space – it has been suggested that Curcumin supplementation may acutely blunt DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness), improve tendon healing and play an anti-inflammatory role in tendinopathy. Preliminary studies however (5, 6, 7) have failed to show a statistically significant difference between curcumin supplementation and placebo groups. There are a number of reasons why (small sample size, curcumin dose and bioavailability, fitness level of participants) and further work is required to develop appropriate protocols for athletes.

Is there any risk associated with supplementing curcumin?

Due to its low bioavailability and low concentration in turmeric, it is unlikely that you can over consume curcumin in its naturally occurring form. However, supplementation has shown side effects when taken in higher doses.

Curcumin has potential interactions with antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, salicylates, and thrombolytic agents which may cause bleeding. Taken on an empty stomach, especially in high doses, it may cause nausea and diarrhoea. The safety of curcumin supplements during pregnancy and lactation is also not established. As with any supplement, speak to your doctor or sports dietitian to see if it is suitable for you.

Take home message

Watch this space. Curcumin potentially has some benefit but it’s not a miracle spice that will cure the qualms of the world. There’s no harm in using it in a normal dose – but be careful with a high dose supplement until we know more.

Tips to include more turmeric in your diet

  • Sprinkle on your oats: this works well with the flavours of coconut milk in particular
  • Add to a smoothie or juice
  • Stir through scrambled eggs, it takes a mild, interesting flavour and gives it a beautiful colour
  • Add to rice during cooking
  • Add to mince mixes: whether it’s burger patties or cottage pie, a little spice will brighten the flavour
  • Soups, casseroles and stews: a curry is not a curry without turmeric, but you can add a mild Indian flavour to soups, casseroles and stews with a little turmeric
  • Sprinkle on roast vegetables, particularly root vegetables such as potato, parsnip and sweet potato
  • Spice up your salads with a pinch in your salad dressing. This works well with lemon based dressings

 

Turmeric Scrambled eggs

References:

1. Lao, C.D., Ruffin, M.T., Normolle, D., Heath, D.D., Murray, S.I., Bailey, J.M., Boggs, M.E., Crowell, J., Rock, C.L. and Brenner, D.E. (2006) BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6(1), p. 10. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-10.

2. Cheng, A.L., Hsu, C.H., Lin, J.K., Hsu, M.M., Ho, Y.F., Shen, T.S., Ko, J.Y. and Lin, J.T. (2001) ‘Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions’, Anticancer Research, 21(4B), pp. 2895–2900.

3. Dhillon, N., Aggarwal, B.B., Newman, R.A., Wolff, R.A., Kunnumakkara, A.B., Abbruzzese, J.L., Ng, C.S., Badmaev, V. and Kurzrock, R. (2008) ‘Phase II trial of Curcumin in patients with advanced Pancreatic cancer’, Clinical Cancer Research, 14(14), pp. 4491–4499. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-08-0024.

4. Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M., Rajendran, R. and Srinivas, P. (1998) ‘Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in animals and human volunteers’, Planta Medica, 64(04), pp. 353–356. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957450.

5. McFarlin, B.K., Venable, A.S., Henning, A.L., Sampson, J.N.B., Pennel, K., Vingren, J.L. and Hill, D.W. (2016) ‘Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin’, BBA Clinical, 5, pp. 72–78. doi: 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.02.003.

6. Tanabe, Y., Maeda, S., Akazawa, N., Zempo-Miyaki, A., Choi, Y., Ra, S.-G., Imaizumi, A., Otsuka, Y. and Nosaka, K. (2015) ‘Attenuation of indirect markers of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by curcumin’, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(9), pp. 1949–1957. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3170-4.

7. Drobnic, F., Riera, J., Appendino, G., Togni, S., Franceschi, F., Valle, X., Pons, A. and Tur, J. (2014) ‘Reduction of delayed onset muscle soreness by a novel curcumin delivery system (Meriva®): A randomised, placebo-controlled trial’, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), p. 31. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-31.

Sports Supplements

Words by Accredited Sports Dietitian, Taryn Richardson, Dietitian Approved

Sports Supplements are everywhere!  I struggle to keep up with the latest products on the market with new brands popping up every week. As many athletes search for that ‘magic bullet’, sports supplements have become a multi-billion dollar industry. In fact, a recent study found that 40-70% of athletes take supplements.

A nutrition supplement, as the name suggests, is designed to supplement the diet and should never replace it. My approach as a dietitian is always “food-first” as your day-to-day nutrition is where you will see the greatest health and performance benefits long term. Supplements are considered the sprinkles, on the icing on the cake. It’s important to get the foundations of a balanced, healthy diet in training right first (the sponge), before adding the icing and even considering the sprinkles.

Supplements typically fall into three main categories: Sports foods and fluids, Medical supplements and Performance supplements.

Sports foods and fluids

These include an extensive list of sports drinks, gels, chomps, bloks, bars, protein powders and recovery drinks. They are easily accessible, portable, convenient and provide concentrated nutrients when real food may not be practical.  In most situations though, real foods can take the place of sports foods if you’re organised. Sports foods and fluids can be expensive, may be completely unnecessary, are energy dense and can cause gastrointestinal upset in some people.

Medical supplements

Are used to treat a known deficiency such as Iron or Vitamin D for a short period of time. They can be pills, potions or powders and should only be taken when recommended by a doctor, accredited sports dietitian or other health professional after a blood test and/or diet review. Taking un-prescribed medical supplements can be dangerous and have harmful long-term effects. 

Performance supplements

Approved ergogenic aids or performance-enhancing supplements have been proven in scientific trials to provide a performance benefit, when used according to a specific protocol in a specific situation in sport. Things like caffeine, creatine and bicarb form part of this list. However there are many other popular supplements on the market promising remarkable super-human powers that don’t deliver. In some cases, these supplements may actually impair health or performance.

Stay safe

A recent study found that 80% of certain supplements didn’t contain what the label said (scary). The risk of contamination with banned substances is real and should be at the forefront of every athletes mind. Especially now that age group drug testing is a common occurrence. The supplement industry is largely unregulated, and traces of banned substances can find themselves in products by accident. You can take responsibility by checking your product on the ASADA website. You can also look for products that have been through a contamination screening process such as Informed Sport or Hasta in Australia. 

Be smart

Be an informed supplement user. Before purchasing anything, do you research and talk to a professional. Ask yourself three questions – Is it safe? Is it legal? Does it really work? If it sounds too good to be true, chances are, it probably is. Everyone has an opinion but be mindful that what works for one, may not work for another. An Accredited Sports Dietitian can help you work out what supplements are best for you and your sport.

Source: projetopedalando.com.br

Happy Training

Taryn

Dietitian Approved