Runners Gut. What is it? How can you prevent it?

Are you the type of runner that knows exactly where every public toilet is along your route?

Don’t worry - you're not alone! 30-50% of athletes regularly suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems while exercising (1).

Far too common among endurance athletes, GI symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, wind, vomiting, diarrhoea and urgency. The frequency, intensity and severity of these symptoms seems to increase as the event distance increases.

So why exactly does it happen?

It’s multifaceted and highly individual but reasons include mechanical, physiological, and nutritional factors (2). We also know that the symptoms are exacerbated by dehydration and hot weather conditions. If you are female, younger and run at high intensity, you may be at higher risk of GI symptoms too (1) (damnit).

Running causes an increase in intra-abdominal pressure which, when combined with our organs bouncing up and down can cause GI symptoms (2). When we exercise, blood flow is re-directed away from our gastrointestinal tract to the exercising muscles, heart, lungs, brain and skin. Blood flow to our intestines can be reduced by as much as 80% !! This obviously compromises gut function and can exacerbate symptoms.

Hydration plays an important role. Dehydrated athletes have reported increased rates of nausea, abdominal cramps and delayed gastric emptying (food leaving your stomach) and associated nausea. Combine decreased blood flow to the gut with dehydration and it can cause increased permeability of the gut (2). In plain English – things are moving across the gut walls in a way they shouldn’t be, causing GI upset.

From a nutritional point of view; fat, fibre, protein and high carbohydrate concentrations (osmolarity) can all be associated with increased risk of GI symptoms. Fat, fibre and protein all slow down digestion – not ideal when you’re running at pace. Large amounts of carbohydrate may not be fully absorbed, leaving residual carbohydrate in the stomach causing GI symptoms during exercise such as bloating, fullness, flatulence and nausea (2).

What can you do to prevent runners gut? Here are our tips:

1.     Train your gut

The gut is extremely adaptable. Research (in humans) shows that you can train your gut in as little as ~30 days to increase absorption capacity (2). Train your gut, just as you would your muscles. Start small and slowly increase the quantities of food and/or fluids you consume while running over a few weeks/months to build your tolerance. Try different types of foods, liquids and gels in training to figure out what works best for you. The golden rule of sports nutrition – NEVER try anything new on race day.

Keep in mind that GI symptoms are usually increased with distance, heat and humidity (3, 4), so you will likely need different strategies depending on the season and the distance you are running.

2.     Play with different carbohydrate sources

We know our gut absorption rate of glucose alone maxes out at approx. 1g/min, or 60g/hour. For the longer endurance events >2hours (i.e. half and full marathons, 50km, 100km and ultra’s), higher carbohydrate intake is recommended, although it's important to find your individual ceiling. You can increase your carbohydrate absorption by utilising different carbohydrates e.g. fructose. This is because it’s absorbed across the gut wall via a different pathway to glucose and can occur simultaneously. Stick to smaller doses, then build you tolerance up over several weeks/months.

3.     Avoid high fibre foods before competition

In the day or two leading into hard training or competition when you bump up your carbohydrate intake, maintain your typical fibre intake to minimise the amount of undigested fibre left in your gastrointestinal tract. Choose white, more refined breads and cereals instead of wholemeal or wholegrain. Keep high fibre veggies and fruits to a minimum. Some lower fibre options include tomato, zucchini, olives, grapes and grapefruit at <1g fibre/serve.

Note: This is not a long-term approach. It should only be followed for 1-2 days ahead of competition. Generally, you should be consuming a high fibre diet to regulate bowel movements and keep you regular.

4.     Go easy on the coffee (sorry)

If you have a sensitive gut, avoid drinking coffee on an empty stomach or right before hard runs. I know, I know…coffee is the best elixir and has performance enhancing effects - but coffee is a strong gut irritant and could be exacerbating your problem. Save your brew for post-exercise. There are plenty of other ways to get caffeine in – don’t stress.

5.     Start exercise hydrated and stay hydrated!

It goes without saying right? Yet the number of athletes we see turn up to sweat testing already dehydrated is insane. Without the use of regular USG’s (urine specific gravity), monitoring the colour of your urine can give you a general idea on your hydration status. You’re aiming for pale, straw coloured urine on a day to day basis as a measure of good hydration. Crystal clear and you’re overdoing it. Really dark and you probably need to drink more…

During exercise you typically need to drink to replace sweat losses enough so you don’t put yourself into the red of dehydration where performance is affected. Do some sweat testing to figure out your sweat rate in different environmental conditions, then work to replace 50-80% of the losses depending on the conditions, duration and intensity. Again, something to practice. If your sweat rate is >3L/hour – you will struggle to drink and absorb this volume of fluid without some serious gut training!

Another good tip is to have a good hit of water with your pre-exercise meal (300-450ml) as this will help prime the stomach to empty well and absorb any nutrition you’re using during exercise. Something to practice. Start with a smaller volume (100-200ml) then build up to 350-450ml 2 hours before exercise.

An Accredited Sports Dietitian can help you with an individualised hydration plan for training and racing.

6.     Your day to day diet impacts your ability to absorb nutrients

Studies have shown increased gastric emptying of carbohydrate by increasing daily dietary carbohydrate (8). Interestingly, increased daily fat intake results in faster gastric emptying of fat, but not carbohydrate. How cool is that?

So, if you generally have a high carbohydrate diet, this increases your ability to absorb carbohydrate across the intestinal wall which in turn, allows greater absorption and then oxidation of carbohydrate during exercise (6). This lowers the chance of GI distress.

For those people that follow a low carbohydrate, high fat diet generally, your intestines respond by decreasing intestinal absorption of carbohydrate and increasing fat absorption. If you then try and ramp up your carbohydrate intake just before competition, chances are you won’t absorb this as well and will have a higher chance of running into GI issues on race day (pun intended). It is also unlikely you will be able to increase your carbohydrate intake beyond 60g/hr if this isn’t something you’ve practiced in training.

Ideal scenario – periodise your intake across the week so you have some days of high carbohydrate availability and some days with low carbohydrate availability depending on your goals and events.

Speak to an Accredited Sports Dietitian about the best strategy for you. Research shows that runners who applied a freely chosen nutritional strategy consumed less carbohydrates during the race and their finish time was longer (5).

Want better results and easy to follow strategies that are tailored to your individual needs? Get professional advice.

 

References

  1. de Oliviera EP, Burini RC. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011; 8: p12
  2. de Oliviera EP, Burini RC. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress. Nutrients. 2014; 6: p4191-4199.
  3. Pfeiffer B et al. Nutritional Intake and Gastrointestinal Problems during Competitive Endurance Events. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012; 44(2): p344-351.
  4. Sessions J et al. Carbohydrate gel ingestion during running in the heat on markers of gastrointestinal distress. European Journal of Sport Science. 2016; 16(8): p1064-1072.

  5. Hansen EA et al. Improved Marathon Performance by In-Race Nutritional Strategy Intervention. International Journal Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2014; 24: p645-655.

  6. Cox GR, Clark SA, Amanda J. Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, Jeacocke N, Snow RJ, Yeo WK, Burke LM. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010 109(1); p126-134 DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009

  7. Lambert GP, Lang J, Bull A, et al. Fluid tolerance while running: effect of repeated trials. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 29: p878–82.

  8. Cunningham KM, Horowitz M, Read NW. The effect of short-term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying in humans. British Journal of Nutrition. 1991; 65: (15–9).

  9. de Oliveira, E. P., Burini, R. C., Jeukendrup, A. 2014. Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Medicine 44 Suppl 1: S79-85.

5 Tips for Fueling on the Bike

Words by pro cyclist Nicole Moerig

I was out riding with a old school friend the other day and we got chatting about nutrition. She has been cycling going on 1 year now and came from a running background, similar to me. Any runner would know how hard to it is to fuel your body before and during training. 'Runners Belly' is not what I would call the most pleasant experience. For this reason, runners tend to avoid eating around training. However, this is a very different story when out on the bike as you are cycling for significantly longer periods of time. 

Half way through our ride my friend went from tapping up the hills to falling out the ass of them (excuse the French). At the end of the ride we got chatting and she commented on how much food I had consumed. It went a little something like this...

Friend - 'You eat a lot!'

Me - 'ha, what have you eaten during the ride today?'

Friend - 'nothing' 

Mind you we had just banked 80km and it's 11.30am. Convo continues:

Me - 'Ok, what did you have for breakfast' 

Friend- 'Oh nothing, I can't eat before I ride' 

Me -  *face palm

When I reflected on this conversation I realised, I too was once just like this. At times I still get caught out and don't realise just how much food is needed to perform optimally. You think you're just 'struggling' today or your legs are sore from yesterday when really your body is just screaming for food! A few days after this I had an appointment with Taryn at Dietitian Approved and we set some guidelines for training to ensure I'm fuelling adequately on the bike.

Here are my top 5 tips for fuelling on the bike: 

1. Plan

The longer and harder the ride, the more carbohydrates you need to consume from the first hour on. Taryn gave me a table that I regularly refer to that breaks down the carbohydrate required based off time and intensity. I generally spend 10 minutes the day before putting my food together for the following day. That way I'm not grabbing at random food as I'm rushing out the door the next morning.

2. Eat regularly and before you feel hungry 

I know this is an obvious one but it's very easy to get rapped up in your ride and before you know it 2 hours has flown by and you haven't eaten a thing. I often get caught out because I don't feel hungry until my glycogen supplies are well depleted. By this stage I'm trying to play catchup and I generally pay for it towards the end of the ride and often well into the next days session. To combat this I tend to set an alarm on my Garmin every 30 minutes as a little reminder to eat. 

3. The Pre-ride meal is key

My pre-ride meal makes a big difference in how quickly I have to eat once out on the bike. I generally try to take in enough carbohydrates for the first hour of my ride. Being a female athlete in a non-impact sport it's also imports to consume a small amount of calcium before a ride. 

The only time I don't eat before training is on recovery days where I'm out for no longer than 1.5hrs and my focus is on socialising and coffee after training. 

4. Fluids are an easy way to get fuel in

Once you find the right sports drink for you, it can be a lifesaver! My preference is Secret Training, mango and passionfruit flavour. They are an easy way of getting nutrition on board especially during racing or more intense sessions. 

5. Change it up 

I like to enjoy what I'm eating when out on the bike as it can break up a long 5hr ride. Plus, Taryn likes to point out that if I'm going to eat some "naughty" food, why not do it during or just post-training. This is when my metabolism is running at full tilt and I'm burning off anything that's going into my mouth. NOTE: This does not mean I polish off a mud cake post-ride at the coffee shop, as much as I wish it did. More like some sweet Banana Bread with Nutella on top which is contributing to my fuel needs as well and providing nutrients to help reach my daily requirement.

A well deserved cappuccino post-ride

A well deserved cappuccino post-ride

What do I eat before a triathlon race? ....Ask Taryn

A question I get asked frequently in clinic - What do I eat before a race? Check out the first in a line of "Ask Taryn" blogs for Foher Multisport

What you eat before a race depends on how long you’ve got to digest and absorb it. If you have multiple hours (e.g. Byron Bay OD), something more solid will likely be tolerated. Compared to a short timeframe i.e. 1 hour or less, something smaller and easily digestible will work best. In saying that, everyone is different and you need to figure out what works best for you.

The pre-race meal is an opportunity to fine-tune fuel and fluid levels, making sure your tummy feels comfortable. The focus is on carbohydrate to top up muscle glycogen levels (the storage form of carbohydrate), ensuring this is low in fat and low-moderate in fibre to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal upset.

With the focus on carbohydrate and fluid, below are a few suggestions of things to eat and drink before racing:

* breakfast cereal with milk

* banana and yoghurt

* Up and Go or Sustagen Sport popper

* Muesli bar and a glass of milk or juice

* Toast , fruit toast, crumpets or English muffin with: honey and banana, vegemite, peanut butter and honey/jam

* Homemade smoothie

* 400-600ml Sports drink

If you know you are a nervous racer and food sits in your stomach for a while, I suggest for long races getting up a little earlier, ensuring you have something to eat 2 hours prior to race start. Choose smaller volume and more carbohydrate dense options if this is you (e.g. 1-2 pieces of fruit toast with honey and sliced banana). If you can’t stomach anything solid, try a liquid meal such as Up and Go or simply just some sports drink.

Evidence also suggests having a bolus of fluid ~200-300ml with your pre-race meal helps move food out of the stomach and further along the path of digestion. This will also help you retain the fluid you’ve just drunk. Choose a carbohydrate containing fluid such as milk, juice, cordial or sports drink. After your pre-race meal, just take small sips of fluid to keep your mouth from drying out leading up to race start if required, don’t gulp.

Experimenting to find the timing, amount and make up that best suits your individual needs is key. The best place to practice is in training; Never try anything new on race day!

Happy training :)

Taryn

http://triathleteskit.com/2015/05/21/ask-taryn-what-do-i-eat-before-a-race/

 

FoherRun